Step by step guide to install antiX-Base

Forum Forums New users New Users and General Questions Step by step guide to install antiX-Base

  • This topic has 35 replies, 7 voices, and was last updated Oct 26-9:24 pm by AA BB.
Viewing 15 posts - 1 through 15 (of 35 total)
  • Author
    Posts
  • #41269
    Member
    Avataranilkagi

    Below is the step by step guide to install the crispy, nimble, lean and mean antiX-Base for computers ranging from 30 year olds to the latest.

    The below guide has been edited to incorporate the suggestions by experts after scrutiny. There is a section under the heading “CHANGING THE DEFAULT SETTINGS”. It is recommended that the default settings be maintained. If you do not want to change the default settings, you can skip this section and directly go to the next, ‘USER SETTINGS’ section. Still if anybody feels that the default settings need to be customized to fit their needs, they can attempt the changes as given under the section, while taking note of the caveats there in.

    Normally you should be able to setup a working antiX system with the help of this guide. Still if you face any difficulties, feel free to discuss them on the forum by creating a new thread mentioning your issue in the topic heading. Please kindly give a link to your new thread here that you have created seeking solution to your issue, and post here briefly describing your issue. Suitable changes can be made to this guide depending upon the discussions in that new thread of yours, so that others who face the same issue can benefit from it. Let us together keep this guide dynamic and evolving.

    I personally have created more than 20 threads till now to seek solutions faced while installing antiX and using it and to understanding the working of antiX. Many honorable members of the forum, who have been using antiX for a long time, the moderators of the forum and the antiX team have guided me into learning to use antiX and it is the education recieved from them, that has enabled me to compile this guide. You too can find solutions to any of your issues on the forum. The enthusiastic members of the forum and the antiX team are highly benevolent and would help.

    I thank all the honorable members for suggesting improvements in the guide through their meticulous scrutinizing efforts.

    How to Install antiX-Base
    *****************************

    Index

    DOWNLOAD
    VERIFICATION OF THE INTEGRITY OF THE ISO FILE
    Verifying md5sum
    Verifying sha256sum
    Verification of signature
    CREATING THE BOOTABLE USB
    BIOS SETUP
    PARTITIONING THE HARD DISK
    INSTALLATION OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM
    Starting Internet
    Update and upgrade
    Choose the partitions
    Setting Language & timezone & Username
    SETTING UP THE NEW antiX OS
    Package Installer
    Synaptic package Manager
    Avidemux
    CHANGING THE DEFAULT SETTINGS
    Desktop right-bottom tray
    Desktop left-bottom
    Conky disabling
    Menu updating – manual
    Menu updating – system
    USER SETTINGS
    Desktop Background/Wallpaper
    Screen blanking
    Ad blocking
    Sound problems
    User Accounts
    A WORD ON DESKTOPS
    A WORD ON FRUGAL INSTALL

    DOWNLOAD

    Download the ‘antiX-Base ISO image’ from the website: https://antixlinux.com.

    Also download the corresponding md5, sha256 and sig files to check the integrity of the downloaded ISO image.

    Place all these files including the ISO image in the same folder. It helps to verify the integrity of the downloaded ISO image.

    After download verify the integrity of the downloaded ISO image as bellow:

    VERIFICATION OF THE INTEGRITY OF THE ISO FILE

    Verifying, any one of the md5sum or sha256sum will be enough.

    The below documented procedure can work on a Linux system. However if you are on a Windows system now, I have given a link below where the procedure to do verify the integrity of an ISO file on windows is given.

    https://forums.linuxmint.com/viewtopic.php?f=42&t=291093

    Verifying the integrity of an ISO file on any Linux system:
    Find the path to your downloaded folder. If you go to the downloaded folder with the help of SpaceFM file manager (or any File manager, depending upon the current Operating System, your computer is installed with.), the path to your downloaded folder is given on the toolbar when you open the downloaded folder. If suppose your ISO file is downloaded to the ‘Downloads’ folder, the path would be ‘/home/your-username/Downloads’. If you have saved your ISO file somewhere else, it would be different.

    Let us say, the names of the files that were downloaded are as below; (Yours could be different.)

    antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso.
    antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso.md5
    antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso.sha256

    Note, the first alphabet ‘a’ in ‘antiX’ is small letter and the last letter ‘X’ is in capitals. That’s how the antiX OS is named.

    Open a root terminal (Menu > Applications > System > Root Terminal.) and go to the folder where you downloaded the ISO by typing ‘cd’ followed by the path to your folder in the terminal, as shown below;

    cd /path to your downloaded folder/antiX-19-2-1-x64-base

    (Here I have given the example file name. Yours could be different. Also change to the name of the file that you have downloaded.)

    Now you are inside the downloaded folder.


    Verifying md5sum

    Verify the md5sum of the iso file, by typing the command in the Terminal as shown below;

    md5sum antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso

    Do not forget to change to the name of the file that you have downloaded.

    You will get a number as output, as shown below (yours may be different); (Do not close the terminal yet.)

    53ec93c66f0ba7231f5a2aaf2fcb312b antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso

    Verify this number with the number given inside the antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso.md5 file. Both should be the same. Otherwise your downloaded image may have been compromised or got corrupt. So you have to download again.

    Verifying sha256sum

    Next, verify the sha256sum of the iso file, as shown below;

    sha256sum antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso

    Do not forget to change to the name of the file that you have downloaded.

    You will get a number as output, as shown below (yours may be different); (Do not close the terminal yet).

    1bdcd8c460bb7b0dd498588c6f459906e06eea24e2048f63815a14c6f54cb959 antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso

    Verify this number with the number given inside the antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso.sha256 file. Both should be the same. Otherwise your downloaded image may have been compromised or got corrupt. So you have to download again, preferably from a different mirror.

    Minimize the Terminal.

    Now verify the signature as follows.

    Verification of signature

    Open a new terminal.

    To check the signature type the command to import the key in the terminal;

    gpg --keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys 4A0C4F9C

    And then in the terminal of the ISO folder, the one that you have minimized, type this command;

    gpg --verify antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso.sig antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso

    Again do not forget to change to the name of the file that you have downloaded.

    The result would be similar to this;

    
    gpg: Signature made Sun 29 Mar 2020 08:52:05 PM IST
    gpg:                using RSA key 30AA418A0C723D937B50A986A80582E000067FDD
    gpg: Good signature from "anticapitalista <antiX@operamail.com>" (unknown)
    gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
    gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
    Primary key fingerprint: 30AA 418A 0C72 3D93 7B50  A986 A805 82E0 0006 7FDD
    
    

    If the above fails, do this;

    To check the signature type the command first to import the key in the terminal;

    gpg --keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys B9B6375C 0679EE98 892C32F1

    And then in the terminal of the ISO folder, the one that you have minimized, type this command;

    gpg --verify antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso.sig antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso

    Again do not forget to change to the name of the file that you have downloaded.

    The result would be similar to this;

    
    (ak@ak-RV509 ~)$ gpg --keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys B9B6375C 0679EE98 892C32F1
    gpg: key 13C74A22892C32F1: public key "Steven Pusser <stevep@mxlinux.org>" imported
    gpg: key 70938C780679EE98: public key "Adrian <adrian@mxlinux.org>" imported
    gpg: key 9B68A1E8B9B6375C: public key "Dolphin Oracle (mxlinux) <dolphinoracle@gmail.com>" imported
    gpg: Total number processed: 3
    gpg:               imported: 3
    (ak@ak-RV509 ~)$  
    

    Close this newly opened terminal, now.

    Then type the following command in the terminal you have minimized, to check the signature;

    gpg --verify antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso.sig

    The result would be similar to this;

    
    (ak@ak-RV509 antiX-19-2-1-x64-base)$ gpg --verify antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso.sig
    gpg: assuming signed data in 'antiX-19.2.1_x64-base.iso'
    gpg: Signature made Sunday 29 March 2020 08:52:05 PM IST
    gpg:                using RSA key 30AA418A0C723D937B50A986A80582E000067FDD
    gpg: Good signature from "anticapitalista <antiX@operamail.com>" (unknown)
    gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
    gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
    Primary key fingerprint: 30AA 418A 0C72 3D93 7B50  A986 A805 82E0 0006 7FDD
    (ak@ak-RV509 antiX-19-2-1-x64-base)$ 
    

    The warning in the last few lines is related to the trust that you put in the antiX signing key. The ISO image is still correct, and valid according to the antiX signing key that you downloaded.

    CREATING THE BOOTABLE USB

    You will need a minimum of 2GB SD card or USB drive for installation purposes. If you are aspiring to have a persistence USB live then you would need more. Refer to this link to know more about persistence: https://download.tuxfamily.org/antix/docs-antiX-19/FAQ/persistence.html.

    You can even create it on a DVD. The same procedure for both.

    Now create the bootable USB with the ISO image of antiX-19.2.1-x64-Base ISO image as follows.

    For this you need a software called “USBMaker-git”. It is available on most Linux distributions, in the package installer. Install it if it is not already installed. I have verified this. This procedure can be done on many Live USB making software which are available on many Linux distros. Just try and verify which works for. Or else you can create the bootable usb on an antiX OS. There is a bootable usb maker which has been created by the antiX team, and it is installed by default in anitiX OS. Start it from Menu > Applications > antiX > Live USB maker. If you are on Windows OS, it suggested and recommended by experts that, Rufus USB making software is suitable.

    After launching the USB maker, follow the simple instructions as follows. The process is similar on most of the USB makers. I am giving here the procedure on USBMaker-git.

    Device
    At the top, the device is the USB drive you have chosen to create the bootable device, namely the card reader and card inside it. You will need a minimum of 2GB sd card for this.

    Partition scheme
    Leave the partition scheme as MBR if the computer you are going to install is old with BIOS setup. If the computer is new with UEFI setup then you choose GPT scheme. Next choose the file system as FAT32.

    Cluster size – default.

    Volume label
    Give a volume label of your liking, such that you can recognize what is inside the SD card.

    ISO Image
    Next click on the 3 dots button. Browse to the location of the ISO you have downloaded. That’s it. Click start. Your bootable USB will be created.

    BIOS SETUP

    Next you have to set your computer to boot from your installation USB. To do this you have to enter into BIOS setup section of the computer.

    Most computers don’t need this setting up of BIOS to install an OS from USB. They are already setup to boot from USB as the first priority. So first try and see if your computer would boot into your USB. If it doesn’t then set up the BIOS to boot from USB as the first priority as mentioned below.

    To setup your BIOS to boot from USB, restart your computer, and immediately after powering on the computer, start pressing, F2 or F4 or F8 or it could be other keys too. Each computer has a different key.

    Once you enter BIOS, navigate to Boot section using the arrow keys. Read the instructions on the right thoroughly. There, set the boot priority to boot from USB as the topmost or the first option, then CD/DVD drive and then Hard disk. That’s it. Save and exit. You will be automatically booted into your Live USB installation, now. You will get a boot menu. Select the antiX OS and hit enter.

    PARTITIONING THE HARD DISK

    This is the most serious part. If you are going to use the entire Hard disk, no problem. If you have some partitions on which there is some data, you need to be careful. If you make the smallest mistake your data on the Hard disk can get corrupted or get washed clean. So make a backup of your HD. Do this with great caution. Take the steps only when you are sure enough. I recommend that you should watch some video tutorials or read some websites on ‘how to use Gparted to make partitions’, before proceeding.

    Though it is possible to create partitions during installations I prefer to create partitions before installation leisurely, instead of doing it in the midst of installation process. Use Gparted to do it. If you are comfortable doing it during installation, no worries. It is a guided process. You can do as you prefer.

    The Linux OS files are stored on a partition called as the root (/) partition, which holds all the system files. It must be formatted preferably as ext4 and mounted on /.

    The Linux OS stores the user files like, Documents, Downloads, Videos, Music etc on a directory called /home directory (the forward slash ‘/’ is for root and the ‘home’ folder which houses the, Documents, Downloads, Videos, Music etc is placed inside the root partition). All the user settings & configurations are also placed in this /home folder as hidden folders.

    It must be formatted preferably as ext4 and mounted on /home.

    Some users prefer to keep this /home folder on a separate partition. Or you can choose to have no separate partition for home and choose to keep it as a directory in the root. You get an option to do this during the installation process. You can do as you prefer.

    The Linux OS Does NOT need a separate partition called /home. /home is only needed in case you don’t want the user files to be stored in the /root partition or if you want a user accessible from different installed (Multiple boot) systems. The reason some people prefer to have a separate partition is, in case they wreck their system and have to go for a re-installation, they will not loose what is on their separate home partition. So the choice is yours. During installation, you can specify the /home to be inside root or as a separate partition.

    The Linux OS optionally needs a partition called Swap for memory when your RAM gets all filled. It must be formatted as swap. SWAP is optional. If you are tight on RAM, you will benefit from having a swap partition. Or else it is not necessary.

    Give about 10 to 15GB space for ‘root’ depending upon the type and size of applications you are going to use. Then, if you are creating a Swap partition, give it 1.5 times the size of your RAM for ‘swap’ (If your RAM is 3GB, your Swap should be 3×1.5=4.5GB). And keep the rest for /home.

    If you choose to do the partitions during installation, almost the same procedure is to be carried out.


    INSTALLATION OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM

    Most of the installation process is automated. However, before going for installation you must setup the internet connection.

    Starting Internet

    Setting up the WiFi internet connection: Use the Connection-manager icon, the two arrows, at the right bottom to get it going. Right click the two arrows, and left click WiFi to turn it on. Next left click the Connection-manager icon and hold it down. It should pop up a list of available WiFi networks. Give it a few seconds to fill the list. Move to the one you want and then release the left button. It should pop up the password prompt. Type it in and click apply. You should see some yellow and red vertical bars in the WiFi network monitor to the right, and the little x next to the arrows on the Connection-manager icon will disappear. If you face difficulties, you can watch this video here – https://www.antiXforum.com/forums/topic/wifi-with-connman-antiX-19-2/.

    If you have an Ethernet connection, just plug in the Ethernet cable from your modem, enter the username password given to you by your service provider.

    If you cannot connect to either the WiFi or the Ethernet, just tether your phone with a USB data cable and choose the tethering options in your phone. Your data must be ON. It will be easily connected. You must be aware that, the first update & upgrade will consume about 400 MB of data plus any applications that you would manually install.

    Update and upgrade

    Now update and upgrade with following commands, in the terminal. You can also use antiX Updater (Menu > Applications > antiX > antiX Updater) which does both steps in a single gui program.

    sudo apt-get update

    Hit enter and type your password when asked and hit enter. The default password in the antiX Live USB is ‘demo’. Your password will not be displayed on the screen. Just type it correctly and hit enter blindly. After the update is complete, type the following in the terminal;

    sudo apt-get upgrade


    Choose the partitions

    On the desktop there is a shortcut to start the installation process. Single click on it. Remember, double click will bring error notification. You are on ROX-IceWM, so single click is what you need to launch applications. However, if you need the double click option, you can do the following.

    Menu > Applications > System > Rox Filer > Right click on any empty space inside the file manager > Options > Filer windows > Disable “Right-click navigation”.

    Next choosing the partitions, if you have already created the partitions. If you haven’t the guided process will take you through.

    During the installation, choosing the correct partitions is a serious matter. Those partitions are formatted before installation by the installer. Even if you choose not to format the /home partition, you must format the /root partition. So you have to choose the right partitions. If you choose something else by mistake your data on that partition will be washed off.

    Setting Language & timezone & Username

    While the installation process is going on, click on the next buttons to set up your time, date, timezone, keyboard, username, password etc. No need to hurry, the installation process will wait till you have finished doing it. That’s it. The rest will be taken care of by the USB installer.

    After installation, shut down the computer, remove the USB and start the computer. You will be booted into the new OS.

    SETTING UP THE NEW antiX OS

    Once you boot into the new OS, the first step is to update and upgrade, if you have not done it in the Live USB stick before installation.

    Update and upgrade

    You are automatically connected to the internet using your earlier setup during installation.

    If you have not updated and upgraded before installation, now is the time to do it by the procedure described above, before installation.

    Restart. It is always good to restart once after large system wide updates, upgrades or installations, you may not do this for small individual package installations.

    Package Installer

    Then open the package installer (The shopping bag icon) from the left bottom of the desktop. Select the applications you would like to install. Don’t forget to select “Synaptic” from Package-Management drop-down list. You will need this to install packages from several repositories.

    Restart.

    Synaptic package Manager

    Now open the ‘Synaptic package Manager’ from the Menu > Applications > System

    In the package manager go to;

    Settings > Preferences > General > Select/enable ‘Consider recommended packages as dependencies’ > Apply & OK.

    Next, search and select from the following packages, which you may find necessary for your daily work. The below list shows the most common applications used by the home user. If you need anything else, search and select, ‘mark for installation’. Though by default, antiX-Base has almost all the necessary packages, I am just giving a hint to get your system ready to do all the tasks a home user would do. Omit if you have already installed from the Package Installer.

    Audacity – (To edit audio files.)
    Catfish – (This is a good file searching software. There is a default SpaceFM search, if it is OK for you.)
    Chromium – (Browser. You have the Firefox-esr by default.)
    Gdebi – (To install debian packages.)
    GIMP – (For editing images)
    Gnome Disks Utility – (You may need it to create mount options for your other external partitions)
    Ibus – (This is necessary to do typing in regional languages.) Ensure all the following dependencies are installed. You must configure Ibus by starting Ibus from Preferences > Yes > OK > The the IBUS preferences box will open. If it doesn’t you should start by right clicking on the icon in your right tray > Preferences > Input method > Add > Select your language. > Add. You will then have to copy and place your language ‘Fonts’ folder by downloading from the web, inside the /usr/share/fonts/truetype/. And then configure LibreOfficeWriter by going to > Tools → Options → Language settings → Languages Check Enabled for Complex Text Layout(CTL) and Choose your language in Default languages for Documents (CTL).

    You may need to install the following ibus dependencies depending upon your language. Verify it from the web.
    ibus-m17n
    ibus-table-extraphrase
    ibus-gtk
    ibus-gtk3
    ibus-qt4 (Ignore this if it is not available on the repositories.)
    ibus-table
    ibus-clutter
    Kolourpaint – (Like MS paint)
    Libreoffice – (MS Office like package)
    Media Info gui- (To extract technical information of video files.)
    VLC – (Video/Audio player)
    Vnstat – (Command line Interface to extract Internet traffic information)
    gnome-Screenshot – (To take screenshots. There is a default screenshot app, if it is OK with you.)
    Virtualbox – (For creating Virtual machines.)
    Zim – (This is a note making software.)

    Avidemux – (To edit video files. Install if you do this kind of work.)

    There is no Debian package for Avidemux application. There is a thing called AppImage. AppImage is a format for distributing portable software on Linux without needing superuser permissions to install the application. It contains an app and all the files the app needs to run.

    You can download the latest Avidemux package here: http://avidemux.sourceforge.net/download.html.

    If you want Tor Browser, you can see this (https://www.antiXforum.com/forums/topic/tor-browser-installation-signature-verification-failed/) link for a manual to do it.

    These packages are enough for day to day functions. Select ones that you need and click apply. After finishing, restart.

    Now that all packages have been installed, you can customize the Desktop and other settings.

    CHANGING THE DEFAULT SETTINGS

    An important information, before you go for changing the default settings:

    It is preferred and recommended that you use the OS as it comes. However, every person has different requirements. The default applications shown in the panel to the left & right bottoms, could be subjectively appropriate for you or not. Like if you often switch between workspaces, having the workspaces on the toolbar really helps. If you do not, it simply holds space that can be given to other applications that you use every now and then. Similarly, other applications displayed on the toolbar. If you feel, it helps to keep some of the most often used applications there and remove the ones you use less often. You can do so by the following method. Here I will take certain examples and change accordingly. The same procedure applies to any application. You can follow that to your liking. However there is a caveat here;

    Any change in the default settings, will be overwritten and return to default settings, if in future you install/upgrade/remove any program using the Synaptic, because of the special hook in apt. So whenever you do so, you will have to repeat these changes.

    Keep that in mind.

    If you do not want any changes to the default system, you skip these steps and directly jump to, USER SETTINGS, below.

    Desktop right-bottom tray

    If you don’t like the ‘CPU status’ and ‘Memory status’ (There is already Conky on the desktop doing almost the same thing. If you want to disable Conky and keep these, see below.) in the right-bottom tray and the ‘Workspaces switching buttons’ in Left-bottom, you can remove them by doing as below. Workspaces can be accessed with Control+Alt+right/left arrow mark keys alternatively.

    Open the ‘Control center’ from the Menu. In the Control-center > Desktop > Edit IceWM settings > Preferences

    The text editor will open.

    Click on ‘preferences’. (Whatever you edit here, will take effect only after a fresh ‘logon’.)

    Search for ‘# Show RAM usage in CPU status tool tip
    # CPUStatusShowRamUsage=1 # 0/1’ in the search box given above. Change 1 to 0, like this ‘TaskBarShowCPUStatus=0’.

    Search for ‘# Show CPU status on task bar
    TaskBarShowCPUStatus=1 # 0/1’ in the search box given above. Change 1 to 0, like this ‘TaskBarShowCPUStatus=0’.

    Search for ‘# Show memory usage status on task bar (Linux only)
    TaskBarShowMEMStatus=1 # 0/1’ in the search box given above. Change 1 to 0, like this ‘TaskBarShowMEMStatus=0’.

    Search for ‘# Show workspace switching buttons on task bar
    TaskBarShowWorkspaces=1 # 0/1’ in the search box given above. Change 1 to 0, like this ‘TaskBarShowWorkspaces=0’.

    Don’t close the text editor, yet.

    Desktop left-bottom

    Next if you don’t like the default applications given in the left-bottom. Instead, if you want Terminal, Notes (a note keeping software), Leafpad (Notepad equivalent), Calculator, Screenshot, Firefox, Chromium, ‘SpaceFM-File Manager’ and Unplug Removable Device. To change the current set and bring yours there in place of them, do as below.

    In the same the text editor, click on ‘toolbar’. There is a list of apps there. The scheme of the settings is;

    prog “app-name-to-be-displayed” path-to-app-icon app-executable

    Just add a ‘#’ before those applications which you don’t want in the left-bottom of your desktop. And add any new ones you want to be shown there. I have added some and hashed out some. You can take this as an example and change it according to your requirement. The final edited set looks as below.

    ### Commonly used applications
    prog “Terminal” terminal.png roxterm
    prog “Notes” zim.png zim
    prog “Leafpad” leafpad.png leafpad
    prog “Calculator” galculator.png galculator
    prog “Firefox” firefox.png firefox
    prog “Chromium” chromium.png chromium
    prog “File Manager” spacefm.png spacefm
    prog “Unplug Removable Device” /usr/share/icons/papirus-antiX/48×48/devices/drive-removable-media-usb.png unplugdrive.sh
    #prog “Software Installer” /usr/share/icons/papirus-antiX/48×48/apps/packageinstaller.png su-to-root -X -c packageinstaller
    #prog “File Manager” /usr/share/icons/papirus-antiX/48×48/apps/file-manager.png desktop-defaults-run -fm
    #prog “File Manager as root” /usr/share/icons/papirus-antiX/48×48/places/folder-red.png su-to-root -X -c rox
    #prog “Web Browser” /usr/share/icons/papirus-antiX/48×48/apps/web-browser.png desktop-defaults-run -b

    The path to the app icons need not be shown. The system knows where those are placed. Sometimes the system may fail to locate icons. If that occurs you have to find the icon and show the path to that icon here.

    Conky disabling

    There is the ‘conky’ (system details displayer) placed on the right-top of the desktop. If you want you can keep it. This is how you remove it.

    Open ‘control-center’. Session > User Desktop session.

    A text editor will open. Click on ‘desktop-session.conf’. Search for LOAD_CONKY=”true”. Change it to false like this;

    LOAD_CONKY=”false”.

    Conky will not be displayed after a fresh logon.

    Now close the editor and the control-center and logoff and logon. All your changes must take effect. If they don’t, you have done something wrong or you need to show the paths. Re-edit and check. You can even copy from the above list given by me here, under ‘### Commonly used applications’, and paste in the toolbar.

    Menu updating – manual

    Now after installation of applications from the Synaptic or from outside the repositories, if any of the apps are not shown in the Menu, do the following. However, before that, it is recommended using the “Refresh Menu” (It’s on the Menu list) or the command “desktop-menu –write-out-global” if your applications was installed manually (after installing with gdebi, for example). If this doesn’t work for you do the following.

    Open the ‘Rox filer’ file manager from the Menu > System, inside the /home/your-username/ folder, at the top, click on the ‘eye’ symbol to show hidden files. Open the ‘.icewm’ folder. Open ‘menu-applications’ by right clicking on it and clicking on ‘Edit as root’.

    There is the list of applications shown in the Menu in different categories, in alphabetical order. Here too the scheme is as below;

    prog “app-name-to-be-displayed” path-to-app-icon app-executable

    Add this line under appropriate section.

    prog “Application-name” application.png application

    Save and close. Re-logon. Now your application will be in the Menu, under the section you added it.

    Menu updating – system

    Now after installation of applications from the Synaptic or manually from outside the repositories, (installing with gdebi, for example) if any of the apps are not shown in the Menu, do the following. However, before that, it is recommended using the “Refresh Menu” (It’s on the Menu list) or the command “desktop-menu –write-out-global”. If these steps do not work for you, do the following.

    This is another way to update the Menu using the Control-center;

    Menu > Control-center > Maintenance > Menu editor

    In the box that opens;

    Applications > Show > A list is opened > Choose the App that you want displayed in the Menu > OK > Refresh > OK > Close control center

    USER SETTINGS

    Desktop Background/Wallpaper

    If you want to change the wallpaper on the desktop i.e. background, open ‘Rox filer as root’ from the Menu > Application > System. Go to /usr/share/wallpaper. There paste any wallpaper you want and close it. Then to choose that as your desktop background do the following.

    Menu > Control-center > Desktop > Choose wallpaper > In the box that opens > Select picture > Select your picture and open > Apply

    Screen blanking

    There is the screen blanking setting in antiX. The screen will go blank after your set number of minutes. Do as below to set it.

    Menu > Control-center > Session > Set screen blanking > Slide to, say 10 minutes, and click Apply > OK > close the Control-center.

    Ad blocking

    If you want to block ads do the following.

    Menu > Control-center > Network > Adblock > In the box that opens, click OK > In the box that opens, select some/all the options and click OK.

    Sound problems

    If there is no sound do the following.

    Menu > Control-center > Hardware > Adjust mixer > In the box that opens, set as below;

    An “MM” means muted, and “OO” means unmuted. Press ‘m’ key on the keyboard to mute/unmute. Note that a bar can be 100% full but still be muted, so do check for this.

    See that the AlsaMixer box that has opened has the following settings.

    Master – 00 & 100
    Headphone – As much as you want.
    Speaker – As much as you want.
    Mic – MM & 00
    Mic booster – 00
    Mic booster – 00
    S/PDIF – MM
    Capture – 40<>40
    Auto-Mut – Enabled
    Internal – MM & O<>O
    Internal – O<>O
    Internal – O<>O
    Loopback – Disabled
    Pre-amp – 11<>11
    Pre-amp – 11<>11

    Exit from alsamixer with the Esc key.

    User Accounts

    To create a daily-use user-account do the following;

    Menu > Control-center > Maintenance > User manager > In the box that opens go to;

    Administration > Add any username and password.

    Then go to Copy/sync tab. A file navigator box opens. Close it. In the section under Copy between desktops, your Administrator name and the newly created name is displayed. If you want to just copy whatever changes you have just done on the new system to the new user account select copy. If you want to keep synchronizing any changes you will make in the future too, select sync. Under ‘What to copy/sync’, select ‘Entire home’ to take every change made to the new user account. Apply and close. In the same window you can select/deselect groups, in the Groups management tab. Groups give or take privileges to users.

    Restart. Your system is ready. This will get almost all the home users going. Best wishes with your new antiX system.


    A WORD ON DESKTOPS

    To keep the OS light, the antiX creates have adopted the strategy of giving the users a ‘File Manager-Window Manager’ combination and a range of varieties also to suit the different liking of the users. You get several different such File managers and Window managers like; ROX filer, SpaceFM, file managers and IceWM, JWM, Fluxbox etc and their different combinations with just a click of the mouse. Menu > Desktop > Other desktops will take you to more than 20 options to choose from, to fit your inclinations. Or you can press F6 during boot to choose your desktop. The default File Manager-Window Manager is ROX-IceWM. The SpaceFM file manager is available by default in Menu > Applications > System.


    A WORD ON FRUGAL INSTALL

    Frugal install is an interesting option. It is the same like the Live USB but it is on your Hard Disk. It is secure than the regular install, because any changes made are not retained. If you restart the system, everything fresh as before. It is an interesting instance, worth trying.

    You can find details of Frugal install in the antiX FAQ page and in the following threads.

    The Philosophy behind my attachment with antiX

    And in the posts of Olsztyn in the thread below;

    How to create isolated, underprevileged but standard user accounts?

    Changing to EXTLINUX/SYSLINUX as the bootloader for the frugal install is a very good setup. You can find the details of it in the below thread;

    Booting antiX Frugal-only From HDD Without Any Full-Installed OS – with Extlinux

    Take a look at these threads. They give a glimpse to the very interesting variation of antiX setup.

    Thanks & Regards

    • This topic was modified 5 months, 3 weeks ago by anilkagi.
    • This topic was modified 5 months, 3 weeks ago by anilkagi.
    • This topic was modified 5 months, 3 weeks ago by anilkagi.
    #41299
    Moderator
    Brian MasinickBrian Masinick

    Very nice step by step guide to install antiX-Base!

    Regarding: Also download the corresponding md5, sha256 and sig files to check the integrity of the downloaded ISO image.

    I would say that one checksum verification (choose one of them) should be sufficient; you can do all of them if it makes you uncomfortable not to do so, but I’ve been downloading images for twenty years and I don’t do more than one checksum. (To be honest, I don’t always checksum unless I have reason to question the quality and size of the image). If you have a high speed connection, unless the size of the image does not match the quoted size of the download, even a checksum isn’t MANDATORY, but it probably IS a good idea to do at least one checksum.

    Adding a keyserver signature check is good; otherwise it is challenging to install packages without having to perform work-arounds to get the package manager to work properly.

    I didn’t spot anything else to comment on in the first pass. The items I have mentioned do not necessarily have to be changed, but in my opinion they are optional and the simplest installation can ignore them and get away with it (unless there are download file issues; in that case, the additional diagnostics are indeed quite helpful! Feel free to keep things as they are unless something else is noticed upon additional review. Very good work!

    • This reply was modified 5 months, 4 weeks ago by Brian Masinick.
    • This reply was modified 5 months, 4 weeks ago by Brian Masinick.

    Brian Masinick

    #41312
    Member
    Avataranilkagi

    Thank you @Masinick.

    #41314
    Moderator
    christophechristophe

    Very nice & detailed. (And quite easy to read — long, detailed posts are hard to organize. You nailed it.)

    #41317
    Member
    Avataranilkagi

    Thank you @Christophe.

    #41318
    Member
    skidooskidoo

    :^) kudos for taking the initiative in drafting a howto

    Download the ‘antiX-Base ISO image’ from the website: https://www.antiXforum.com

    did you intend to write antixLINUX dot com ?
    .

    USBMaker-git

    I’m unfamiliar with a tool by that exact name, and I am aware that some of the “maker” tools available from various distros will render a pendrive which, yes, is bootable… but is unable to support antiX persistence features.

    This tool, developed in-house (by “BitJam”, an antiX developer) is what we should recommend.
    Curiously, the live-usb-maker tools is not mentioned on the “download” page.
    It is available for download here, as a zipfile (or tar.gz?): https://gitlab.com/antiX-Linux/live-usb-maker
    and that page provides “documentation” for its usage.

    Verifying md5sum
    Verifying sha256sum
    Verifying signature
    I worry that. for a noob, “all that” poses a loooooong and intimidating reading session.
    For display here in the forum (all within a single post), I recommend nesting the entire “VERIFICATION OF THE INTEGRITY OF THE ISO FILE” section inside its own B-QUOTE box, along with a (?)subtitle line under the allcaps line, stating
    (these verification steps are optional, but are recommended)

    CREATING THE BOOTABLE USB

    live-usb-maker will take care of any necessary partitioning, formatting of the target USBdrive.
    Its menu also walks the user through available options, inviting advance creation of persistence files, etc.
    .
    If the person is starting out from a Windows system, the tool I would recommend for creating the antiX bootable pendrive from a downloaded ISO file is Rufus, from https://rufus.ie/

    You can create a separate /data partition to store all your documents safe.

    hxxp://download.tuxfamily.org/antix/docs-antiX…
    paraphrasing the brief explanation in the antiX FAQ:
    “During liveboot, you can use the Live-usb-storage/ directories (which don’t even require persistence)”
    ^— live-usb-maker can create Live-usb-storage directories on the bootable pendrive, or user can request their creation as an option from the antiX liveboot menu. Upon entering liveboot desktop session, each user will see a ~/Live-usb-storage symlink within their home directory.

    You are on ROX-IceWM, so single click is what you need to launch applications.

    double-click can be specified via the Rox } Options configuration UI.
    (FWIW, some of the users I support locally are motor skills impaired.
    I set double-click as the default across ALL the machines that I maintain.)

    ——-
    For now, I’ll defer from making suggestions about the details covered regarding desktop setup/customization

    ___________________________________________
    When requesting help, pasting the output from inxi -Fzr command will provide important relevant details:
    antiX version//edition ~~ stable vs testing repos ~~ live vs installed vs virtualbox ~~ hardware specs

    #41319
    Member
    XecureXecure

    Fantastic guide you created, anilkagi. There are so many important steps you have described and in such detail that it will be very very useful for new and seasoned users.

    Some nitpicking.

    You will need a minimum of 8GB sd card or USB drive for this.

    I have burned antiX 19.2.1 Base to a 1GB USB stick (which I use live to test programs and for troubleshooting), so people don’t really need the 8 GBs USB, but it is recommended for Live persistence, so I am not against your recommendation.

    PARTITIONING THE HARD DISK

    This is the most serious part. If you are going to use the entire Hard disk, no problem. If you have some partitions on which there is some data, you need to be careful. If you make the smallest mistake your data on the Hard disk can get corrupted or get washed clean. So make a backup of your HD. Do this with great caution. Take the steps only when you are sure enough. I recommend that you should watch some video tutorials or read some websites on ‘how to use Gparted to make partitions’, before proceeding.

    Though it is possible to create partitions during installations I prefer to create partitions before installation leisurely, instead of doing it in the midst of installation process. Use Gparted to do it.

    The Linux OS needs a partition called as the /root partition, which holds all the system files. It must be formatted preferably as ext4 and mounted on /.

    The Linux OS needs a partition called /home partition for placing all the user settings & configurations. It must be formatted preferably as ext4 and mounted on /home.

    The Linux OS needs a partition called /swap for memory when your RAM gets all filled. It must be formatted as swap.

    Give about 10 to 15GB space for ‘root’ depending upon the type and size of applications you are going to use. And 1.5 times the size of your RAM for ‘swap’ (If your RAM is 3GB, your Swap should be 3×1.5=4.5GB). And keep the rest for /home.

    You can create a separate /data partition to store all your documents safe. If in future you wreck your OS and have to re-install, your documents will remain safe.

    Very nice explanation. It only misses an explanation about /boot partition but few will need this.
    There is one thing I would like to point out, for future readers.
    The Linux OS Does NOT need a partition called /home. /home is only needed in case you don’t want the user files to be stored in the /root partition or if you want a user accessible from different installed systems. During installation, you can specify the /home to be inside / and not an external partition. I prefer this method to avoid so many partitions.
    Also, SWAP is optional. I try to avoid using it, as I want my SSD to last for longer, and I really don’t care about hibernate. If you are tight on RAM, you will probably benefit from having a swap partition.

    Update and upgrade

    You can also use antiX Updater (Menu > Applications > antiX > antiX Updater) which does both steps in a single gui program.
    This is a personal opinion, but I want to include it here. I recommend updating and upgrading in the live system BEFORE installing. I recommend this because all updates will be included in the final installation, and because sometimes new default options (like menu changes or system configuration) will not be available if updated after installation, unless you create a new user. Also, you will be using the newest installer if you update/upgrade before installation. And, finally, because in this way you will be installing a system 100% up to date.

    Menu updating – manual

    Open the ‘Rox filer’ file manager from the Menu > System, inside the /home folder, at the top, click on the ‘eye’ symbol to show hidden files. Open the ‘.icewm’ folder. Open ‘menu-applications’ by right clicking on it and clicking on ‘Edit as root’.

    Editing this file is not recommended. Next time you install/upgrade a program, your changes will be overwritten. It is best to create a .desktop file in /usr/share/applications if you want a specific program (that is not showing) to be found by the menu-updater script. But before that, I recommend using the “Refresh Menu” or the command “desktop-menu –write-out-global” if your applications was installed manually (after installing with gdebi, for example).

    At some point after SETTING UP THE NEW antiX OS I would add “Change the default applications”, and mention about the “preferred applications” program, but this is a bonus. Maybe also a “Select you preferred Desktop session”, if people want a different WM and/or desktop-icon manager (spacefm-fluxbox, for example). But, as I said, this is a bonus. Your article is already very good.

    A very good and thorough guide. Thanks, anilkagi, and congratulations for an excellent contribution.

    #41322
    Member
    Avataranilkagi

    Thanks Skidoo, for the meticulous efforts to improve the HowTo.

    The website to download was an inadvertent mistake. I am correcting it.

    I’m unfamiliar with a tool by that exact name

    The tool is available on the Archlinux AUR repos. Link here: https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/usbmaker/

    Earlier, I tried making antiX USB stick with other tools but they didn’t work for me. This one worked smoothly on Manjaro, which was installed on my system then, before migrating to antiX. Moreover, if I can remember correctly, Rufus on Windows also did not work for me. Have you verified? Just wanted confirmation before incorporating it in the HowTo. I can’t test it immediately now because, I have uninstalled Windows. Given time I will verify it. As I have mentioned in the HowTo, the tool inbuilt in antiX works absolutely with no issues at all.

    these verification steps are optiona

    Really? I didn’t know. Even @Masinick was also of the same opinion, but didn’t insist.

    Though it was 3 years back, I thought this verification procedure was important after this incident:

    https://blog.linuxmint.com/?p=2994

    https://itsfoss.com/linux-mint-hacked/

    Before that I too used to disregard it. From then on I have been, very particular about it.

    IMHO a bit of more discussion on this is warranted.

    live-usb-maker will take care of any necessary partitioning, formatting of the target USBdrive.
    Its menu also walks the user through available options, inviting advance creation of persistence files, etc.

    Being a newbie myself, I always felt having the partitions ready, before installation a relief, lest something go wrong, it being a serious matter. However, this could be my subjective notion. Anyway, I will keep both the options and leave the choice to the user. Right?

    hxxp://download.tuxfamily.org/antix/docs-antiX…
    paraphrasing the brief explanation in the antiX FAQ:
    “During liveboot, you can use the Live-usb-storage/ directories (which don’t even require persistence)”
    ^— live-usb-maker can create Live-usb-storage directories on the bootable pendrive, or user can request their creation as an option from the antiX liveboot menu. Upon entering liveboot desktop session, each user will see a ~/Live-usb-storage symlink within their home directory.

    I mentioned regarding having a separate /data partition, other than, /root, /home & swap, to store files, so that if in the future it so happens that the user needs a reinstall including formatting the /home, all the stored documents are safe on the /data instead of /home. I think this is an extra matter not concerned with the installation. It creates confusion and is not necessary here. So I will remove this part. No?

    double-click can be specified via the Rox } Options configuration UI.
    (FWIW, some of the users I support locally are motor skills impaired.
    I set double-click as the default across ALL the machines that I maintain.)

    This is a necessary information and needs to be incorporated.

    I am waiting for your “suggestions about the details covered regarding desktop setup/customization”.

    Thanks.

    #41326
    Member
    Avataranilkagi

    Xecure, thanks for the painstaking assessment to make it better.

    I incorporated almost all of your recommendations except the following for the mentioned reasons.

    It is best to create a .desktop file in /usr/share/applications if you want a specific program (that is not showing) to be found by the menu-updater script.

    This is out of my league. Till now I have been accomplishing this by editing the menu-applications file. I was not aware that it is not recommended. Now, you will have to elaborate on this step, so that it would be helpful to me as well as others.

    Maybe also a “Select you preferred Desktop session”, if people want a different WM and/or desktop-icon manager (spacefm-fluxbox, for example). But, as I said, this is a bonus.

    Even I considered adding this but I thought this is pretty obvious, even for a guy like me who needs hand holding. So I left it out, but if you think it necessary, we can add that. If we decide to add it, I suppose we should add a bit of intro to the DT sessions. I will think over the intro words.

    #41327
    Moderator
    Brian MasinickBrian Masinick

    Regarding checksums, choosing one of them, such as the md5sum, is adequate.

    Though you can do as many checks as you want, I believe that multiple checksums is extraneous. Even the Linux Mint site recommended md5sum.

    By the way, while the Mint site is now as secure as a reasonable site should be, I feel that 3-5 or more years ago, before the attacks their site was a good example of being too casual.

    In my case, any overly casual behavior is because 1) I have a lot of redundancy of information, 2) Very little “sensitive” information (and most, if not all sensitive information is more carefully protected by multifactor authentication in addition to redundancy). 3) Any “casual behavior” on my part is because I differentiate between things that I can rebuild and personally identifiable information (PII) which deserves careful attention.

    Brian Masinick

    #41328
    Moderator
    Brian MasinickBrian Masinick

    /usr/share/applications is the default location for placing desktop files that contain the name of the application, the icon file location, a description and optionally localization (language translation of the name and description).

    Users do not have to modify this, but if you install additional applications yourself and want to see them in the menu hierarchy, that’s why you may want to use it.

    • This reply was modified 5 months, 4 weeks ago by Brian Masinick.

    Brian Masinick

    #41330
    Member
    Avataranilkagi

    Though you can do as many checks as you want, I believe that multiple checksums is extraneous. Even the Linux Mint site recommended md5sum.

    Fine Masinick, I have made the changes as per your instructions.

    Thank you.

    #41336
    Member
    skidooskidoo

    anilkagi, liveboot has been the focus of my interest. Your howto skips past, glosses over, the liveboot experience.

    When reading a howto, the user has a goal. Chunking the howto into sections, even if just delineated by ======== lines or however, should help the user feel a sense of accomplishment as they “work their way through” performing the steps (and reading about the optional steps) within a given section, toward achieving the goal.

    Excuse my pedantic stumbling (it’s just my nature), but I sensed a disconnect between the title “guide to install” and the content discussing housekeep-y tweaks like editing the desktop menu entries and suppressing the conky autostart. These details seem out of scope for a goal of “installing”. That’s why I mentioned my decision to defer making suggestions “regarding desktop setup/customization”. Similarly, the topic of BIOS setup would probably be best presented as “list of curated doc/tutorial links” within this installation howto.

    Rufus, across years, has always worked successfully when I tested. (you asked)
    A separate howto for using it, although short, (forum search will find it within my past posts) is beyond the scope of this installation howto.

    In assisting with revisions, IMO our attention should focus on achieving correctness/accuracy, e.g. catching sticking points like “needs” (outdated? optional, but unnecessary) within the statement “The Linux OS needs a seperate partition or a directory called /home partition”.

    ___________________________________________
    When requesting help, pasting the output from inxi -Fzr command will provide important relevant details:
    antiX version//edition ~~ stable vs testing repos ~~ live vs installed vs virtualbox ~~ hardware specs

    #41337
    Moderator
    Brian MasinickBrian Masinick

    anilkagi, liveboot has been the focus of my interest. Your howto skips past, glosses over, the liveboot experience.

    When reading a howto, the user has a goal. Chunking the howto into sections, even if just delineated by ======== lines or however, should help the user feel a sense of accomplishment as they “work their way through” performing the steps (and reading about the optional steps) within a given section, toward achieving the goal.

    Excuse my pedantic stumbling (it’s just my nature), but I sensed a disconnect between the title “guide to install” and the content discussing housekeep-y tweaks like editing the desktop menu entries and suppressing the conky autostart. These details seem out of scope for a goal of “installing”. That’s why I mentioned my decision to defer making suggestions “regarding desktop setup/customization”. Similarly, the topic of BIOS setup would probably be best presented as “list of curated doc/tutorial links” within this installation howto.

    Rufus, across years, has always worked successfully when I tested. (you asked)
    A separate howto for using it, although short, (forum search will find it within my past posts) is beyond the scope of this installation howto.

    In assisting with revisions, IMO our attention should focus on achieving correctness/accuracy, e.g. catching sticking points like “needs” (outdated? optional, but unnecessary) within the statement “The Linux OS needs a seperate partition or a directory called /home partition”.

    With regard to being particular and accurate, to the best of my knowledge the only required partitions (within the distribution) are the root (/, rather than /root) and swap. Other file systems may be desirable, but directories such as /home and /data do not require their own separate filesystem. That is a matter of either personal preference or corporate standardization. If you are using UEFI and GPT for boot management and file system infrastructure, then a /boot filesystem containing at least a EFI directory is also mandatory, but it only needs to be CREATED if it does not already exist. If a previous installation or another system exists, the /boot infrastructure may already be present.

    Brian Masinick

    #41338
    Member
    skidooskidoo

    ” Next time you install/upgrade a program, your changes will be overwritten.
    It is best to create a .desktop file in /usr/share/applications if you… “

    Stating “best” there… yeah, necessitates mentioning the huge caveat:
    ” Next time you install/upgrade a program, your changes to files pathed there are subject to being overwritten. ”

    I’m at a loss how best to word it, what(all) advice to offer, for inclusion within an installation howto.

    When administering an antiX system (setting customizations globally, for all users)
    it’s important to know, to bear in mind:

    ((( any, apt//dpkg -based system, not exclusive to antiX )))
    During package installation/upgrade operations, potential overwrite of any file pathed under
    /etc/
    should trigger a (keep?/replace?) prompt during the operation.
    With the exception of files pathed under /usr/local/ and /home/
    we should (must) expect that the package manager utility will silently overwrite
    any same-named files residing in any filepath.

    ((( specific to antiX, varies across each linux distribution )))
    Many of the in-house antiX packages _do_ install files to
    /usr/local/
    and your changes to files therein are subject to being silently overwritten during pkg upgrade operations.
    (sysadmins: chmod -w is an ineffective prevention; instead, refer to the manpage for “dpkg-divert”)

    Due to these caveats related to “manually altering ‘system’ files”, I suggest the introductory “howto” not mention/coach alteration of any files residing outside the user’s HOME directory.

    ___________________________________________
    When requesting help, pasting the output from inxi -Fzr command will provide important relevant details:
    antiX version//edition ~~ stable vs testing repos ~~ live vs installed vs virtualbox ~~ hardware specs

Viewing 15 posts - 1 through 15 (of 35 total)
  • You must be logged in to reply to this topic.